Intake of caffeine and other methylxanthines during pregnancy and risk for adverse effects in pregnant women and their foetuses
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Intake of caffeine and other methylxanthines during pregnancy and risk for adverse effects in pregnant women and their foetuses

The first part of the report deals with occurrence of methylxanthines in foods, beverages, and medicines, and estimates of caffeine intake. In addition, a short review of the pharmacological and toxicological actions of caffeine is given. The second and main part of the report reviews available information from epidemiological studies on the potential health hazards to the human foetus associated with parental intake during pregnancy of caffeine and related methylxanthines in foods, beverages and medicines. The studied adverse effects are influence on fertility, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformation, pre-term delivery, foetal growth retardation, foetal behaviour and effects on neonates, infants and young children. The conclusion of the report demonstrates the need for limiting caffeine exposure during pregnancy. The Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) recognizes that the human exposure to caffeine and related compounds causes a spectrum of pharmacological effects, for instance cardiovascular, renal, neurological and behavioural effects. The increasing use of caffeine and related methylxanthines in various foods and beverages consumed by children and adolescents cause concern. NNT recommends that a full hazard characterization of caffeine and related methylxanthines should be performed with the aim to reach a conclusion about the upper safe level of intake of these compounds.

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Caffeine and pre-term delivery You do not have access to this content

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Nordic Council of Ministers

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One of the main causes of perinatal death and neonatal morbidity is preterm delivery. These conditions may result in immense grief for the persons involved and the economic costs can be high (Peacock et al 1995). Many factors have been associated with pre-term birth, the most important being maternal age (both young and old), low socio-economic status, racial factors, single marital status, low weight prior to pregnancy, a history of adverse pregnancy, antepartum haemorrage, cigarette smoking, coffee consumption during pregnancy, foetal gender, and multiple gestation. However, only low socio-economic status, a history of adverse pregnancy, and antepartum haemorrhages have been consistently reported as risk factors (Williams et al, 1992).