Evolving Agricultural Policies and Markets

Evolving Agricultural Policies and Markets

Implications for Multilateral Trade Reform You do not have access to this content

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Author(s):
OECD
19 Oct 2016
Pages:
92
ISBN:
9789264264991 (PDF) ;9789264264984(print)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264264991-en

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This report focuses on the significant developments in world agricultural markets and in the policies of major agricultural producing regions since the latest round of WTO negotiations began in 2001. In the past decade, production, prices and trade flows have been transformed and countries have substantially altered their agricultural trade and domestic support policies. The impacts of these policies on global production, trade and welfare (proxied by private household consumption) are assessed along with the effects of possible multilateral trade reform scenarios. The assessments are made through an application of the OECD’s computable general equilibrium model, METRO, in conjunction with the AGLINK-COSIMO outlook model.

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  • Foreword

    Since 2001, when the latest round of agricultural trade negotiations formally begun, there have been significant developments in both agricultural markets and to the use agricultural policies worldwide. Shifts have been observed in the relative importance of production centres and in price paths for a number of agricultural commodities. Trading patterns have also been altered. At the same time, governments across the world have pursued a wide range of different policies. There have been changing levels and types of support provided to agriculture across different regions. Access to markets has also changed. All these influences suggest that the impacts on markets, economies and households of current agricultural policies are likely to have also changed and with it, the nature and source of the gains from less distorted agricultural markets.

  • Executive summary

    Since the latest round of WTO negotiations began in 2001, world agricultural markets have evolved significantly. Production, prices and trade flows have been transformed while over the same period countries have also altered their agricultural trade and domestic support policies substantially. This study focuses on developments in world agricultural markets and in the policies (defined as domestic support policies and trade policies) of major agricultural producing regions that have occurred since 2000. World agricultural markets continue to face significant distortions from government interventions in the sector. While some of these are targeted towards correcting market failures, others are not and have the potential to distort incomes and welfare, reducing the potential benefits that are derived from the sector, the efficiency of global food production and the benefits from trade in its production (as a means of balancing food surplus and deficit regions at least cost to consumers).

  • Current agricultural policies: An overview of their impact and possible reforms

    This chapter presents an overview of the main findings of the study. It first summarises the main changes that have occurred in agricultural markets and policies since 2000. Second, it provides an overview of the results of the assessment conducted to explore the impacts of current agricultural domestic support and trade policies on markets and countries and the implications these have for future multilateral reform efforts. Third, it explores the impacts of various reform efforts along with policy developments that see an increase in agricultural protectionism in some regions. The effects of these scenarios are explored for developed and developing economies.

  • Developments in agricultural markets and policies

    This chapter explores in detail the developments in agricultural markets and policies that have occurred since 2000. First, it provides a break down in the developments in markets in terms of changes in production, prices and trade. Second, it provides details on agricultural domestic and trade policy changes with respect to market access, domestic support and export competition.

  • Impacts of current agricultural policies and potential impacts from reform

    This chapter explores the impacts of current agricultural domestic support and trade policies on markets and countries along with a number of scenarios looking at both reforms and increases in protection. First, the chapter sets out the modelling approach used in the study. Second, the impacts of current policies on production, trade and the economy are presented. Third, a closer look at the impacts of current policies on individual international agricultural markets and prices is presented. Fourth, the chapter presents possible multilateral reform scenarios, including one of increased protection.

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