Building Food Security and Managing Risk in Southeast Asia

Building Food Security and Managing Risk in Southeast Asia You do not have access to this content

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03 May 2017
9789264272392 (PDF) ;9789264272385(print)

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This report explores effective policy solutions to the current and future challenges related to food security in the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). While robust GDP growth, rising agricultural productivity and output, and strong growth in agricultural incomes have all contributed to vast improvements in the food security of the region, 60 million people remain undernourished. ASEAN governments have therefore justifiably kept food security as a policy priority. The regional policy architecture set out in ASEAN frameworks provides sound guidance, yet some of the current policies adopted by members are not helping to address food insecurity and its causes, including the formidable challenges related to climate change and the need for continued growth in sustainable food production to feed growing populations. This report puts forward a number of policy recommendations to ensure that the ASEAN agricultural and fisheries sectors contribute effectively and efficiently to ensuring regional food security.

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  • Foreword and acknowledgements

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region is both dynamic and diverse. Strong economic growth, continued development and the transformation of the agricultural and fisheries sectors have left their mark on regional food security: whereas in the early 1990s, undernourishment rates for the region were the world’s highest, by 2014, these rates had fallen below those seen in the majority of other regions worldwide. However, despite this impressive performance, the region contains more than 60 million undernourished people, indicating that more needs to be done.

  • Executive summary

    Over the course of the last two decades, the countries that comprise the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have transformed into a region described by The Economist in April 2016 as “at the forefront of the emerging markets success story”. The features of this success – including strong gross domestic product (GDP) growth, rising agricultural productivity, output and agricultural incomes, aided by the increasing prominence of the region in global agro-food markets – have in turn spurred vast improvements in food security. These improvements are expected to continue over the 2015-24 period, with projections indicating that the number of undernourished people in the region as a whole will decline by almost 13 million.

  • Overview of challenges and opportunities for improving food security in Southeast Asia

    The past 20 years have witnessed unprecedented changes in the economies and the agricultural and fisheries sectors of the countries that comprise the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).1 Robust gross domestic product (GDP) growth, rising agricultural productivity and output, and strong growth in agricultural incomes have all contributed to significant improvements in the region’s food security. The agricultural sector has undergone considerable structural adjustment, shedding a substantial amount of labour across all ASEAN member countries between the early 1990s and early 2010s, while simultaneously increasing production (World Bank, 2016). Despite these changes, the production mix of ASEAN as a whole has remained relatively stable, with rice continuing to represent the single largest production activity in value terms.

  • Agriculture and food security in ASEAN

    This introductory chapter presents the structure of the overall report, followed by an overview of agriculture and food security across the ten Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members. It summarises developments in agricultural production in ASEAN, focusing on production and trade of key agro-food products including rice, after which it provides a snapshot of food security within ASEAN across a range of indicators, including examining the changes that have taken place over the past 20 years.

  • Agricultural and food security outlook for Southeast Asia

    This chapter presents medium-term projections for markets and production of agricultural and fisheries commodities important for the ten Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members, including the implications of these projections for future food security. It also considers longer-term issues for agriculture and food security in the region, related to the possible impacts of climate change. To this end, it first explores projections of prices, production and trade of key regional agricultural and fisheries commodities. Second, it analyses the impacts of these medium-term projections on regional food security within ASEAN. Third, it considers some of the longer term implications of climate change on agriculture and food security.

  • Stocktake of food security polices in ASEAN

    This chapter presents a stocktake of the range of agriculture-related food security policies used across the ten Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members. It first presents the policy landscape, describing the range of interventions related to self-sufficiency targets, trade policies, public stockholding programmes and various interventions in domestic markets. Second, it provides a review of findings from existing research on the effectiveness and efficiency of these policies. Third and finally, a brief review of regional interventions for food security is presented.

  • Current approaches and alternatives for managing food insecurity risk in ASEAN

    This chapter examines food security at household level within selected ASEAN countries, and assesses the effectiveness and efficiency of current policy approaches in addressing transitory food insecurity risks. First, household survey data for five ASEAN countries is evaluated in order to shed light on the incidence of undernourishment at household level, including details on the characteristics of undernourished households. Second, the impact of three major food insecurity risks on rice prices and the prevalence of undernourishment in the selected countries are simulated. Finally, the performance of current and alternative trade and domestic safety net policies under the risk scenarios is compared.

  • Improving the enabling environment for agriculture in ASEAN

    This chapter assesses the enabling environment for sustainable agricultural productivity growth in the countries that comprise the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It first outlines the key challenges and opportunities facing the agricultural sectors of ASEAN members that motivate the need for sustainable agricultural productivity growth. Second, it presents an updated and revised Agricultural Growth Enabling Index (AGEI). Third, it applies the AGEI to a subset of ASEAN members: Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. Finally, it presents country-specific profiles of the performance of each of the ASEAN members across all components of the AGEI.

  • Enhancing food security by improving agricultural innovation systems in ASEAN

    This chapter takes stock of agricultural innovation systems (AIS) in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states, using the OECD framework for Analysing Policies to Improve Agricultural Productivity Growth, Sustainably. It assesses governance of the AIS in ASEAN, investments in innovation, institutions for facilitating knowledge flows in the AIS, and systems for cross-country co-operation on innovation within the region. The chapter concludes with recommendations for promoting sustainable agricultural productivity growth across the region by improving the enabling environment and innovation systems in ASEAN.

  • Lessons from Indonesia on fishing for food security

    This chapter explores how fisheries and aquaculture policies in Indonesia can contribute to improved food security and nutrition. It takes stock of the challenges to food security in Indonesia, describes how fisheries and aquaculture contribute to nutritious food supplies and incomes, and outlines the strategy of the Government of Indonesia for the sector. Policies currently in place are then analysed, and alternative policy options are proposed, where relevant, in light of three main objectives: sustainable management of natural resources for the future, increased economic opportunities for fishers and aqua-farmers, and improved consumer access to seafood.

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